DNA Repair Technology
That familiar double spiral known as DNA, the repository of all the information that makes us human, is subject to anywhere from a thousand to a million daily assaults: from the outside by radiation, pollutants, and thermal damage; from the inside by replication errors and the normal metabolic processes of the body. But nature has provided the human genome with an insurance policy, of sorts. Not only is our DNA sequestered deep within the nucleus of each of our cells, but we have developed a variety of strategies to repair the damage, most of which occurs as injuries to the bases which comprise the rungs of the DNA ladder.
DNA is particularly susceptible to UV damage, which, though it will later have widespread consequences, is at first sustained in the topmost layer of skin. While the melanin of the skin and added sunscreen reflect or absorb a certain amount of light, enough solar radiation inevitably gets through to the nucleus of the cell to directly damage DNA and also to produce free radicals, which alter the genetic code.
The skin is not defenseless. A sizeable arsenal of DNA repair enzymes, each coded through a different gene, springs into action when the cell is alerted to damage. When that damage results from UV exposure, the typical repair pathway is nucleotide excision, in which the damaged strand is recognized and snipped out, and polymerases fill in the gap, using the opposite strand as a template to guide the correction. All in all, in the 24-hour period following a sunburn this process repairs about half the DNA damage sustained by the skin.
That is not enough. Un-repaired DNA damage can wreak havoc on a cell. Even a single damaged rung out of the three billion bases of the human genome can potentially derail its genetic program. Critical damage that overwhelms a cell is likely to send it into a programmed suicide called apoptosis. Much worse, if these safety mechanisms do not come into play, the aberrant cell can become cancerous.
Not unmindful of these circumstances, SilDerm™-Celfix™ Cosmeceuticals uses enzymes known as endonucleases to seek out damaged DNA and send a rallying call to the body to use the natural repair enzymes in the body to remove the lesions.
One such enzyme is found in micrococcus lysate, an extract from the microbe micrococcus luteus, one of the most UV-resistant microbes known to science. It grows wherever light is found on land and sea, and even thrives in the surface waters next to large Antarctic glaciers, where the ozone layer is at its most depleted. In order to protect its own genome in such a harsh environment, this bacterium has a well-developed DNA repair system featuring high levels of a UV-specific endonuclease.
A second endonuclease repair enzyme, OGG1, targets both the nucleus and that other location in the cell where DNA resides, the energy-making mitochondria. OGG1 seeks out a common type of free radical damage to DNA, in which an extra oxygen molecule has attached itself to the DNA base. One of the best studied of these is from the tiny mustard plant arabidopsis thaliana.
A second repair mechanism, found in plants, microbes, and animals (including opossums, among other marsupials), but not in humans, is photoreactivation. Here, a light-sensitive enzyme called photolyase adheres directly to the damaged DNA and channels energy it absorbs from sunlight to separate and then restore the fused rungs. About 20 minutes of sunshine or an hour of indoor light are sufficient to activate a photolyase enzyme and help clear the DNA of UV damage. Photolyase is particularly active in plankton and blue green algae such as anacystis nidulans that are exposed to the intense sun exposure on the surface of the ocean.
All SilDerm™-Celfix™ products utilize a targeted liposome delivery system to release DNA repair enzymes into the skin. Liposomes are microscopic vesicles made up of phospholipids, oleic acid and cholesterol. These vesicles are loaded with DNA repair enzymes and are able to penetrate the stratum corneum and deliver the enzymes to the layers of the skin where damage exists.
Extrinsic aging is caused by DNA damage. This means that aging skin, sun spots, sagging, wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, redness etc. are caused by DNA damage. Approximately 90% of DNA damage is caused by DIRECT UV EXPOSURE. Only about 10% of DNA damage is caused by INDIRECT (oxidative or free radical) damage. Very few products presently on the market can help the body correct UV DNA damage.
With its targeted liposomal delivery system and damage-specific DNA repair enzymes, SilDerm™-Celfix™ Cosmeceuticals are essential products everyone should use in their fight against premature aging. SilDerm™-Celfix™ products are niche products designed to work with any skin care regimen you are currently using to help improve overall skin health and appearance while assisting the body's natural processes to reduce the signs of damaged skin.